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African Music

March 28, 2007



            African Music is best understood by rejecting the notion that it is "primitive" music. This "ear opening" allows a person to discover African Music on its own terms without applying Western standards and values where, in many cases, those standards and values are inappropriate.


            Broadly speaking, there are both similarities and differences between Western music and African music and it is in this domain of diversity that African music is best discovered. The elements of African music (rhythm, melody, harmony, musical instrument, meter and timbre et al.) are, broadly speaking, those of Western music. However, the unique features of each element of African music contain the essence of what makes African music unique in the World.


            Although it has been the writer's experience that the West responds very positively to African music and art, it is equally true that Westerners are frequently bewildered by the subject since the objectives of the two cultures, in many cases, differ. If the definition of music is read from a dictionary in the West, the concept of music reflecting an "aesthetic of beauty" or a "sense of the beautiful" is apparent. For example,... [More]
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March 28, 2007



Brand / Generic Names


Beer, Wine, Brandy, Gin, Tequila, Vodka, Whiskey.


Street Names


Booze, Brew, Cold One, Juice, Sauce, Wahoo Juice


Possible Effects of Alcohol


            The term "Alcohol" has been synonymous with "spirituous" liquids for the past 300 years while the history of alcohol consumption , along with codes limiting its consumption, go back to 1700 B.C. There are basically four types of alcohol, Methyl Alcohol, Ethyl Alcohol, Propyl Alcohol and Butyl Alcohol. Ethyl Alcohol is the type used in the production of alcoholic beverages. The other three types of alcohol, Methyl, Propyl and Butyl Alcohol, if consumed can result in blindness and death - even in relatively small doses.


            Alcohol, and its consumption can cause a number of marked changes in behavior. Even low doses significantly impair judgment and coordination. In small amounts, it can induce feelings of relaxation and tranquillity, suppress anxiety, and in some, inspire feelings of confidence. However, as the dose is increased , normally beyond 6 ounces, the pleasant euphoric feelings begin to give way to feelings of depression. Intoxication occurs because the liver is unable to metabolize more than one ounce of alcohol every... [More]
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Barbiturates III

March 28, 2007



            Barbiturates are medicines that act on the central nervous system and cause drowsiness and can control seizures. Barbiturates are in the group of medicines known as central nervous system depressants (CNS). Also known as sedative-hypnotic drugs, barbiturates make people very relaxed, calm, and sleepy. These drugs are sometimes used to help patients relax before surgery. Some may also be used to control seizures (convulsions). Although barbiturates have been used to treat nervousness and sleep problems, they have generally been replaced by other medicines for these purposes.


            These medicines may become habit forming and should not be used to relieve everyday anxiety and tension or to treat sleeplessness over long periods. There are easy-to-use barbiturate urine drug testing products at Barbiturates are available only with a physician's prescription and are sold in capsule, tablet, liquid, and injectable forms. Some commonly used barbiturates are phenobarbital (Barbita) and secobarbital (Seconal).


Recommended dosage


            Recommended dosage depends on the type of barbiturate and other factors such as the patient's age and the condition for which the medicine is being taken. Check with the physician who prescribed the drug or the pharmacist who filled the prescription... [More]
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Barbiturates II

March 28, 2007



            Barbiturates are powerful depressants that slow down the central nervous system (CNS). Classified as sedative/hypnotics, they include amobarbital (e.g. Amytal), pen obarbital (e.g. Nembutal), phenobarbital (e.g. Luminal), secobarbital (e.g. Seconal), and the combination amobarbital-secobarbital (e.g. Tuinal). (Note that where a drug name is capitalized, it is a registered trade name of the manufacturer.)


            What is discussed in this paper are most of the sedative/hypnotics that are not benzodiazepines. (For a discussion of benzodiazepines, see Facts About Tranquillizers.)


            Barbiturates and other sedative/hypnotics are medically prescribed to treat sleeplessness, anxiety, and tension, and to help prevent or mitigate epileptic seizures. Certain barbiturates are also used to induce anesthesia for short surgical procedures or at the beginning of longer ones.


            Because of the risks associated with barbiturate abuse, and because new and safer drugs such as the benzodiazepines are now available, barbiturates are less frequently prescribed than in the past. Nonetheless, they are still available both on prescription and illegally.


            Besides having therapeutic uses, barbiturates are often used for their pleasurably intoxicating effects. Some people take them in addition to alcohol, or as a substitute. Heavy users of other drugs sometimes... [More]
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March 28, 2007



            Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia. Some are also used as anticonvulsants. A group of drugs derived from barbituric acid that is used to sedate, to control convulsions, or to induce sleep. Blood and urine tests can determine toxic levels of these compounds. Barbiturates may be habit forming


            Barbiturates are derivatives of barbituric acid.




            Barbituric acid was first synthesized on Dec 4, 1864, by German researcher Adolf von Baeyer, the founder of Bayer pharmaceuticals company. Barbituric acid was synthesized by combining urea (an animal waste product) with malonic acid (derived from the acid of apples). There are several stories about how the substance got its name. The most likely story is that von Baeyer and his colleagues went to celebrate their discovery in a tavern where the town's artillery garrison were also celebrating the day of Saint Barbara - the patron saint of artillerists. An artillery officer is said to have christened the new substance by amalgamating 'Barbara' with 'urea'. [1]


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Folk Dances

March 28, 2007

Folk Dance


Folk Dance, recreational or ceremonial dance performed usually by members of the community to which the dance is traditional. Varying criteria have been used to differentiate folk dance from other kinds of dance: For example, the dancers are said to belong to a certain economic level or come from certain locales; the steps are simple and repeated, so that any member of the community can participate; the dances require no audience; and they are passed down through many generations. Each of these criteria can be contradicted by dances that are indisputably folk dances, and in each of these criteria, folk dance overlaps with other kinds of dance.




The mazurka (Polish: mazurek, probably named after Poland's Masuria district) is a Polish folk dance in triple metre with a lively tempo, containing a heavy accent on the third or second beat. The dance became popular at Ballroom dances. The Polish national anthem is a mazurka.


Several classical composers have written mazurkas, with the best known being the 58 composed by Frédéric Chopin for solo piano. Henryk Wieniawski wrote two for violin with piano (the popular "Obertass", op.... [More]
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Science and Technology in Human Life

March 28, 2007



            X-rays (or Röntgen rays) are a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength in the range of 10 to 0.01 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 to 30 000 PHz (1015 hertz). X-rays are primarily used for diagnostic radiography and crystallography. X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation and as such can be dangerous. In many languages it is called Röntgen radiation after the investigator of the radiation, Wilhelm Röntgen.


            Since Röntgen's discovery that X-rays can identify bony structures, X-rays have been developed for their use in medical imaging. Radiology is a specialized field of medicine. Radiographers employ radiography and other techniques for diagnostic imaging. Indeed, this is probably the most common use of X-ray technology.


            X-rays are especially useful in the detection of pathology of the skeletal system, but are also useful for detecting some disease processes in soft tissue. Some notable examples are the very common chest X-ray, which can be used to identify lung diseases such as pneumonia, lung cancer or pulmonary edema, and the abdominal X-ray, which can detect ileus (blockage of the... [More]
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March 28, 2007



            Badminton is a racket sport played by either two opposing players (singles) or two opposing pairs (doubles), who take positions on opposite halves of a rectangular court that is divided by a net. Players score points by striking a shuttlecock with their rackets so that it passes over the net and lands in their opponents' half of the court. A rally ends once the shuttlecock has struck the ground, and the shuttlecock may only be struck once by each side before it passes over the net.


            The shuttlecock is a feathered projectile whose unique aerodynamic properties cause it to fly differently from the balls used in most racket sports; in particular, the feathers create much higher drag, causing the shuttlecock to decelerate more rapidly than a ball. Because shuttlecock flight is strongly affected by wind, competitive badminton is always played indoors. Badminton is also played outdoors as a casual recreational activity, often as a garden or beach game.


            Badminton is an Olympic sport with five competitive disciplines: men's and women's singles, men's and women's doubles, and mixed doubles, in which each pair is a man and a woman. At high levels of... [More]
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Medieval Art

March 28, 2007

Medieval art


Medieval art covers a vast scope of time and place, over 1000 years of art history in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. It includes major art movements and periods, national and regional art, genres, revivals, the artists crafts, and the artists themselves.


Art historians classify Medieval art into major periods and movements. They are Early Christian art, Migration Period art, Celtic art, Pre-Romanesque and Romanesque art, Gothic art, Byzantine art and Islamic art. In addition each "nation" or culture in the Middle Ages had its own distinct artistic style and these are looked at individually, such as Anglo-Saxon art or Viking art. Medieval art includes many mediums, and was especially strong in sculpture, Illuminated manuscripts and mosaics. There were many unique genres of art, such as Crusade art or animal style.




Medieval art in Europe grew out of the artistic heritage of the Roman Empire, and the legacy of the early Christian church. These sources were mixed with the vigorous "Barbarian" artistic culture of Northern Europe to produce a remarkable artistic legacy. Indeed the history of medieval... [More]
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Early Christian Art and Architecture

March 28, 2007

Early Christian art and architecture


Early Christian art and architecture is the art produced by Christians or under Christian patronage from about the year 200 to about the year 500. Prior to 200 there is no surviving art that can be called Christian with certainty. After about 500 Christian art shows the beginnings of Byzantine artistic style.


Prior to 200 Christians may have been constrained by their position as a persecuted group from producing durable works of art. Since Christianity was largely a religion of lower classes in this period, the lack of surviving art may reflect a lack of funds for patronage. The Old Testament restrictions against the production of graven (an idol or fetish carved in wood or stone) images may also have constrained Christians from producing art. It is also possible that Christians purchased art using pagan iconography, but gave it Christian meanings. If this happened, "Christian" art would not be immediately recognizable as such.


Early Christians used the same artistic media as the surrounding pagan culture. These media included fresco, mosaics, sculpture, and manuscript illumination. Early Christian art not only used Roman forms, it also... [More]
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